Care of the COVID-19 Patient


Upon completion of this section, you will be able to:

  1. Review physiological cardiovascular concepts
  2. Demonstrate an ability to relate the pharmacology of medications to the determinants of cardiac output
  3. Identify the clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and discuss appropriate nursing interventions for prevention
  4. Understand the clinical manifestations of common cardiopulmonary events
  5. Demonstrate appropriate primary nursing interventions for common cardiopulmonary events


The cardiac system is the primary body system responsible for the pumping of blood required for perfusion of body tissues. Perfusion is the flow of blood through arteries and capillaries to deliver essential cellular oxygen and nutrients (Giddens, 2017). Perfusion can be divided into central and tissue perfusion. Central perfusion is the mechanism for blood delivery and is impaired by a decrease in cardiac output (Giddens, 2017). Tissue perfusion is the actual amount of blood which flows through target tissues and can be impaired by factors which disrupt the delivery of oxygen, fluid and nutrients to cells (Giddens, 2017).

Review the following videos on common heart sounds:

Normal Heart Sounds

Dr. Ahmed Mezu, 2018.

S3 Heart Sound

Medzcool, 2016.

S4 Heart Sound

Medzcool, 2016.

JVP Exam

Jessica Nishikawa, 2015.

Review the following PowerPoint on cardiovascular concepts:

The following webinars describe cardiac events and associated interventions that nurses will need to be aware of when caring for patients within the IMCU/ICU.

IMCU Module 3: Cardiopulmonary Events

Nova Scotia Health Authority, 2020.

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Pathology

Thrombosis Adviser, 2013.

Coronary angioplasty

Geneva University Hospitals, 2016.

IMCU Module 3: Acute Coronary Syndromes

Nova Scotia Health Authority, 2020

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Nursing

RegisteredNurseRN, 2019

Additional Resources

Vasoactive Medications

Often vasoactive medications are required for patients with increasing acuity and complexity. To administer these medications, the practitioner must be competent in the safe administration and have the appropriate monitoring for patients. Review the following video series on common ICU/ICU vasoactive medications.